|Native name||lok Munkhâsh|
|Info available||full grammar|
The Munkhâshi language was the official language of Munkhâsh, the ancient ktuvok empire. Outside the empire it’s often assumed that it’s the language of the ktuvoks themselves, but it’s a human language, a member of the Eynleyni family; in particular, that of eastern Demóshimor, the leading human portion of the empire. Naturally, however, it reflects ktuvok values. (E.g. the word for ‘human’ is jôtil ‘worshipper’, emphasizing human subjugation to the ktuvoks; the word for iliu is tujno ‘paddler’, as the ktuvoks considered them to be poor swimmers).
It’s the ancestor of modern Dhekhnami (but not necessarily of all modern Eyleyni languages; many derive from sisters of Munkhâshi and have been affected by the standard languages.)
- Stops p t k b d g
- Affricates ch j ts dz
- Fricatives th dh sh zh kh
- Nasals n m
- Liquids w l lh r
- Vowels i e ê â u o ô a
Notably, Munkhâshi lacks a labial fricative such as /f/ or /ɸ/, going against the tendency in world languages to have /f/ but not /θ/. Instead, the liquid /w/ apparently developed from an earlier labial fricative.
Munkhâshi is largely agglutinating, but its core verbal morphology depends on consonant mutation to express five grades of rank. For example, using ktut ‘come’:
Both nouns and verbs have duals and plurals. (E.g. trêm ‘estate’, trêmêt ‘pair of estates’, têtrêm ‘estates’— the plural is formed by partial reduplication). There is a wide variety of affixes (and some infixes) to express aspect, modality, possession, etc.
The language is VSO and largely head-initial. A peculiarity of Munkhâshi, which has spread to Sarroc, is the conjugation of both auxiliaries and main verbs within a clause.
Munkhâshi never developed a writing system; what we know of it comes almost entirely from Caďinorian and Cuzeian scholars, plus reconstruction from modern Eynleyni languages. A few words are attested in Tžuro sources. There are also some Dhekhnami manuals of magic which describe what is evidently an archaizing pronunciation, for use in incantations; these are difficult to interpret but shed some light on late Munkhâshi.
Kruthen Gelálh. / Krith Engel alh.
come.A-request Gelálh / want.B Englishman one
- Come, Gelalh! / I want an Englishman.
Orôthrot tlednadzu alh. Kmêwakh biko.
order-cause-near.D mole-big indef / break.B.past this.one
- Bring another icëlan. I broke this one.